Herders note that autumn seems colder and longer. The winters are generally colder and have more snow, though 2011 had little snow compared to other years. Herders were not concerned about dzuds, or extreme winter weather conditions, as reindeer are well adapted to cold winds and deep snow. The herders sometimes experience frozen pastures (as in August 2009). While frozen pastures are a disaster to tundra reindeer husbandry, the taiga herders can find alternative pastures in forests sheltered by the surrounding mountains. However, predicted climate warming in Mongolia (Gomboluudev 2008) could mean more frequent icing of pastures, difficult years with reduced production, and more insects. When summers are hot and there are no snow patches, reindeer have nowhere to escape from insects, which can compromise the physical condition of animals.