The Arctic is home to approximately 4 million people, with the share of indigenous and non-indigenous populations varying widely between the Arctic states. Larger settlements are usually located in resource-strategic positions. Rich deposits of natural resources are spurring industrial activity in the region. The Russian Arctic, for example, holds 1.5 of the country’s population, but accounts for 11% of its gross domestic product and 22% of its exports. The Arctic could also hold up to 22% of the world’s undiscovered oil and natural gas reserves. Commercial shipping across the Arctic, along the North East Passage and Northern Sea Route, is expected to increase dramatically over the next few decades with retreating ice conditions.